Minggu, 17 April 2011

GERUND AND INFINITIVE

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GERUND adalah bentuk kata kerja pertama + ing ( V1 + ing) yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda. Oleh karena itu semua kedudukan atau fungsi kata benda (noun) bisa kita gantikan dengan gerund (V ing). Selain itu kapan dan dimana kata benda itu muncul boleh dan dapat juga kita gantikan dengan gerund (V ing). Di sisi lain INFINITIVE disebut juga bentuk kata kerja pertama (V1) atau kata kerja dasar. INFINITIVE dapat kita kelompokkan menjadi dua yaitu infinitive with to / to infinitive (TO V1) dan infinitive without to/Bare infinitive/ simple Verb ( V1)



GERUND ( G )

Fungsi kata benda/ Gerund:

a.    Sebagai subjek
Contoh:

Biasa   :  Mr. Is9ni       makes                         me       happy
                 S                    V                    O
Gerund            : Swimming     makes me  happy, bukan Swim makes me happy
                   S                  V        O
Dari contoh di atas, subjek kata benda (Mr. Is9ni), dapat kita gantikan dengan kata kerja “swim” dengan cara menambahkan –ing pada kata kerja tersebut, menjadi “swimming” karena kata kerja tersebut berfungsi sebagai subjek.

b.    Sebagai objek transitif
Contoh:

Biasa   : Reni   likes    ice cream
                S        V              O
Gerund            : Reni   likes    going to school  bukan Reni likes go to school
                S        V               O
Dari contoh di atas, objek kata benda (ice cream), dapat kita gantikan dengan kata kerja “go to school” dengan cara menambahkan –ing pada kata kerja tersebut, menjadi “going to school” karena kata kerja tersebut berfungsi sbg objek kalimat.
                       
c.   Sebagai objek preposisi/setelah kata depan ( in, at, on, by, with, without, of, off, before, after, for, about, from, to, up, etc.)

Biasa   :  I am interested in English
                                              N
Gerund            :  I am interested in singing “Tombo Ati”
                                      G

Biasa   : Mr. Dhany is afraid of dog
                                               N
Gerund            : Mr. Dhany is afraid of leaving this country.
                                                G


d. Setelah Possessive Adjective ( My, your, his, her, their, our, etc)
Contoh:

Biasa   : Her book is wonderful
                        N
Gerund            : Her wearing clothes is wonderful
                   G

e. Setelah kata-kata kerja tertentu:

admit, appreciate, consider, enjoy, mind, avoid, recall, finish, miss, regret,  delay, quit, postpone, deny, can’t help, risk, suggest, practice, advice, recent, resist, imagine, keep, anticipate, recommend, tolerate, etc.
contoh:
She kept running until the end
He enjoys writing in Kompas

f. Setelah ungkapan-ungkapan tertentu:

It’s no use, it’s worth, it’s busy, can’t help/can’t stand/can’t bear, have difficulty, feel like, etc.
Contoh:
It’s no use studying without practicing.
Iwan can’t help living alone without his family.





TO INFINITIVE ( TO V1 )


a. Untuk mengungkapkan tujuan (Purpose). Tujuan disini artinya menjawab pertanyaan ”untuk apa kita melakukan sesuatu /Why or What for?”.
Contoh:

Mr. Is9ni goes to school to study English ( Why does Mr. Is9ni go to school?)
Mrs. Yumira went to post office to buy some stamps. ( Why did Mrs. Yumira go to post office?

b. Sesudah kata sifat (adjectives) : anxious, boring, dangerous, hard, eager, easy, good, strange, pleased, ready, difficult, etc.
Contoh:
It’s easy to lift this box.
It’s ready to serve.
He was very anxious to hear the result.

c. Sesudah ungkapan TOO and ENOUGH
Contoh :

This box is easy enough to lift.
This car is too small to carry eight people.

d. Sesudah kata-kata kerja tertentu:
Agree, Appear, Arrange, Ask, attempt, Beg, Decide, Demand, Expect, Fail, Hope, Intend, Learn, Manage, Mean, Need, Offer, Order, Promise, Refuse, Seem, Tend, Try, Wait, Want, etc.
Contoh:

Dea agreed to accompany me to go to Farah’s party.
I expect to begin studying English Literature next month.
Rini didn’ t want to go.






BARE INFINITIVE ( V1)

Kita menggunakan V1 untuk:

a. Setelah MODAL ( will, would, may, might, shall, should, can, could, etc)
Contoh:

Mr. Dhany will study English tomorrow.
Mr. Is9ni can speak four languages


b. Setelah kata kerja  Let dan Make
Contoh:

My teacher let me go home because I was sick.
Rendy has made his wife cry
   Akan tetapi berbeda dengan:
This pen is made to write (Dalam hal pasif, biasanya kita menggunakan TO V1 karena mengungkapkan tujuan)

c. Setelah Kata-kata kerja Persepsi ( Verbs of Perception) misal: See, hear, listen, watch, observe, notice, feel, etc
contoh:

I saw Tina cross the street.
Tia always helps her mother prepare meals for breakfast

CATATAN: Khusus kata kerja persepsi di atas bisa diikuti oleh V ing atau V1, Namun maknanya berbeda.

He saw my mother crossing the street. (= My mother was crossing the street and He saw her.)
He saw my mother cross the street. ( = My mother crossed the street and He saw her.)

TO V1 or  V ing




a. TO V1 = V ing

Kata kerja berikut bias di ikuti V ing atau To Vi dan artinya sama atau tidak berbeda:
Begin, like, love, prefer, start, regret, hate.
Contoh:
He started to study after midnight= He started studying after midnight

b. TO V1 ≠ V ing

Kata kerja berikut bisa diikuti V ing atau TO Vi namun maknanya berbeda:
Forget, Remember, Stop.
Contoh:
He stopped to smoke ( = He stopped doing something to smoke)
He stopped smoking (= He used to smoke, but he didn’t do it anymore)
TO  V ing

To + V ing digunakan dalam ungkapan-ungkapan tertentu. ” To” di sini adalah “to” sebagai preposisi, sehingga itulah sebabnya mengapa “to” bertemu V ing. Ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut antara lain:
Be/get/ become + used to,
be/get/become + accustomed to,
look forward to,
confess to,
object to,
advance to,
be opposed to,
adjust to.

Contoh:

The students of Al Qolam are used to studying (= Sampai sekarang terbiasa belajar)
Akan tetapi: The students of Al Qolam used to study ( = Dulu biasa belajar, sekarang tidak lagi)
Ninawati is looking forward to meeting the director.






PROBLEM SET


01.  I am looking forward to ….you next week
(A)  seeing
(B)  see
(C)  will see
(D)  be seeing
(E)  be seen

02.  I am now …tea without sugar.
(A)  accustomed to drink
(B)  accustomed to drinking
(C)  have the accustomed to drink
(D)  accustomed in drinking
(E)  the accustomed drinking.

03.  All new students at this university are required…an English proficiency test.
(A)  taking
(B)  having to take
(C)  take
(D)  to take
(E)  will take

04.  ‘ Why do you have to stay at home tomorrow?’
‘…. My little brother!'
(A)  takes care of
(B)  taking care of
(C)  to take care of
(D)  for taking care of
(E)  I will take care of

05.  ‘What do you need my calculator for?’
 '…. This math problem.'
(A)  In solving
(B)  My solving
(C)  solved
(D)  to solve
(E)  I solve

06.  My friend is considering…school before finishing it because of financial reason. 
(A)  left
(B)  to leave   
(C)  leaves
(D)  leave        
(E)  leaving

07.  Little children are usually afraid of…by their mother.'
(A)  left
(B)  to leave
(C)  being left
(D)  leaving
(E)  been left

08.  'Mr. Is9ni declined the offer of….to Singapore as a representative of our company.
(A)  Being transferred
(B)  Is transferred
(C)  transferred
(D)  to transfer
(E)  be transferred




09.  It is impossible for us…. the whole book within 2 weeks.
(A)  translate
(B)  to translate
(C)  translating
(D)  being translated
(E)  translates

10.  'Did you thank Johan for the dictionary he bought for you?’  
‘Yes I did. I really appreciate….it for me.'
(A)  To buy
(B)  buys
(C)  buying it
(D)  to have bought
(E)  his buying

11.  This house needs….         
(A)  repair
(B)  repairing
(C)  to be repaired
(D)  repaired
(E)  B and C are correct

12.  Despite criticisms from political opponents, the new president continues his…abroad.
(A)  travel
(B)  to travel
(C)  traveling
(D)  be traveling
(E)  to be traveled

13.  'Why are you taking the car to the garage?'
         ‘…..’
(A)  I will check the brakes myself
(B)  The brakes will checked
(C)  having checked the brakes
(D)  To have the brakes checked
(E)  The brakes will have been checked

14.  …..the broken car is very time consuming if you don’t know about the car.
(A)  checking
(B)  checked
(C)  to checked
(D)  check
(E)  checks

15.  The reason why I am here is…you fill in the forms for the scholarship.
(A)  help
(B)  to help
(C)  helping
(D)  I will help
(E)  I am helping

16.  ‘ What did Rudy finally decide?’
‘….his master’s degree in Japan.’
(A)  He can take
(B)  His taking
(C)  taking
(D)  be taking
(E)  to take


17.  The fact that he was put into prison for something he had not done made his wife….
(A)  cry
(B)  to be crying
(C)  cried
(D)  to cry
(E)  crying

18.  I don’t mean…your feeling.
(A)  hurt
(B)  to hurt
(C)  hurting
(D)  being hurt
(E)  I will hurt

19.  Could you…an eye on my boy friend while I go abroad?
(A)  keep
(B)  to keep
(C)  be kept
(D)  kept
(E)  keeping

20.  ‘This English text on Biology is too difficult to read.'
'Well, you'd better….'
(A)  translating it
(B)  translated it
(C)  to translate it
(D)  translate it
(E)  to be translated it

21.  Would you mind….with me to the cinema?
(A)  go
(B)  goes
(C)  going
(D)  went
(E)  gone

22.  When I walked around my house, I saw someone…on the gate.
(A)  stood
(B)  stands
(C)  to stand
(D)  standing
(E)  was standing

23.  Mother wants me….with her.
(A)  going
(B)  go
(C)  gone
(D)  to go
(E)  will go

24.  he thief denied…jewelry although the police force him to admit it.
(A)  steal
(B)  stealing
(C)  to steal
(D)  in stealing
(E)  stolen

25.  When did you…English.
(A)  Begin learned
(B)  Begin to learning
(C)  Begin to learn
(D)  Begin learn
(E)  Beginning learning









Sumber: http://nurmanali.blogspot.com/

4 komentar:

  1. Blognya bagus..keep writing ya

    BalasHapus
  2. Thank you hopefully many who visit this blog, content of blogs in the development of this highly innovative and very worthy to be published so that many who read it.

    BalasHapus
  3. boleh minta kunci jawaban dari soalnya gk ?
    butu dong

    BalasHapus
  4. iya kunci jawabannya butuh banget, makasih

    BalasHapus