Kamis, 14 April 2011

conditional sentences and subjuntive

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conditional sentences

Tidak semua  conditional sentences (IF Clause)  identik dengan Subjunctive. Subjunctive adalah kalimat pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi lagi, sedangkan pada If clause type 1 masih ada kemungkinan untuk terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Hanya If Clause type 2 dan type 3 yang identik atau sama dengan Subjunctive.

1. Pola dan Arti IF Clause 

Ada tige jenis If Clause yaitu :

TYPE 1 

Pola :  IF   + S  + V1s/es (am,is,are)  +  S + M1 + V1/be
       Arti : Masih mungkin terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Contoh : 
If I study hard I will pass the exam. 
it means that It’s possible for me to pass the exam.

Kata kunci untuk arti If Clause Type 1 yaitu ada kata-kata yang berarti mungkin (possible, perhaps, maybe, likely, probably, etc.)

TYPE 2
       
 Pola :  IF   + S  + V2 (were)  +  S  + M2 + V1/be
Arti : Tidak mungkin terjadi di masa sekarang

Contoh : 
If I studied hard I would pass the exam. 
it means that I don’t study hard, so I don’t pass the exam.

Kata kunci untuk arti If Clause Type 2 yaitu cari lawan kata dari pernyataan sebelumya (kalau negative biasanya ada kata-kata Do/does + not + V1 or am/is/are + not atau kalau positif ada V1 s/es or am/is/are.


    TYPE 3
    
    Pola :  IF   + S  + had V3 (had been)  +  S  + M2  + have + V3/been
    Arti : Tidak mungkin terjadi di masa sekarang
    
    Contoh : 
    If She had come to my house, She would have met her friend, Rita. 
    it means that She didn’t come to my house so she didn’t meet Rina.

Kata kunci untuk arti If Clause Type 2 yaitu cari lawan kata dari pernyataan sebelumya (kalau negative biasanya ada kata-kata didn’t + V1 or was/were + not atau kalau positif ada V2 or was/were.


2.  Pola dan Arti Subjunctive 

* Wish (present) + S  +  V2/were/could V1  +  Present time (now, today, etc.)
* Present verb + as if/as though  + S  +  V2/were/could V1  + Present time( now, today,etc)
* Wished (past) +  S  + had V3(had been)/could have V3 + Past time( yesterday, last…, …ago, etc.)
* Past verb  + as if/as though  +  S  +  had V3(had been)/could have V3 + Past time( yesterday,last…, …ago, etc.)
* If only  +  S  +  V2/were/could V1  + Present time( now, today, etc.)
* If only  +  S  + had V3(had been)/could have V3 + Past time( yesterday, last…, …ago)
* Would rather  +  S  +  V2/were/could V1  + Present time( now, today, etc.)
* Would rather + S  + had V3(had been)/could have V3 + Past time (yesterday, last…, …ago, etc.)


    RINGKASAN
         If only  V2/were + (present time)
        Would rather
         As if
As though          Had V3/had been + ( Past time )
         Wish


Fakta dari subjunctive turunkan satu tingkat di bawahnya namun negatifkan, jika kita menggunakan Past Perfect dalam Subjunctive maka faktanya Past simple, dan apabila kita menggunakan Past Simple dalam subjunctive maka faktanya Present Simple.  Kata kunci atau cara mencari fakta dari subjunctive sama persis dengan IF Clause Type 2 dan Type 3.

“Would Rather” selain sebagai subjunctive juga bisa kita pakai untuk mengungkapkan preference atau kesukaan, namun ada perbedaan pola penggunaan.  Would rather sebagai preference langsung bertemu dengan kata kerja pertama (V1), sedangkan pada subjunctive diikuti dengan subjek .Perhatikan perbedaan contoh berikut:

    Subjunctive : He would rather my father were not at home. (ada subject setelah ‘d rather)
    Preference : He would rather stay at home than spend his time at discotique. (no subject after would rather)


    PENTING!!!

a. IF +  S  + WERE … bisa kita ungkapkan dengan pola inversi yaitu : WERE  + S …
         Contoh : 
       If I were here = Were I here.
         If She were a dentist = were she a dentist.
    
b. IF  +  S  + HAD V3/HAD BEEN … bisa juga kita ungkapkan dengan menggunakan pola inversi yaitu :  
    HAD  +  S  + V3/BEEN …
        
       Contoh :
     If Mary had come … = Had Mary come …
If She had been a doctor, … = Had she been a doctor, …

c. IF … Not ( IF dalam bentuk negative ) sama maknanya dengan UNLESS atau OTHERWISE.  Namun struktur berpola positif.
         Contoh :
If Mr. Dhany didn’t study well, … = Unless Mr. Dhany studied well, …



PROBLEM SET 6


01. If someone had taken her book, she ... the teacher.
(A) would have told to 
(B) would have told 
(C) will have told it to 
(D) had told it 
(E) would tell it to

02. He ... if I had not reminded him.
(A) may forget
(B) might have forgotten 
(C) must forget 
(D) should forget 
(E) may forget

03. "Your drawing was very good."
    "I could have done better if I ... more time." 
(A) have had 
(B) will have had 
(C) had    
(D) would have 
(E) had had

04. "Were    the    doctor    here,    he    would immediately examine Mary."
    This means ....
(A) "Mary cannot be examined because the doctor is not here." 
(B) "The doctor is here and examining Mary." 
(C) "Mary is being examined because the doctor is here." 
(D) "Although the doctor is here, Mary is not examined." 
(E) "The doctor is not here, but Mary has been examined."

05. He didn't pass his exam. If he had studied harder, he ....
(A) can pass it
(B) could pass it.
(C) will pass it
(D) can passed it.
(E) could have passed it.


06. If he studies hard, …good mark
(A) he'd get 
(B) he gets  
(C) he'll get
(D) he'll have got 
(E) he'd have got

07. Had I known you did not have any money, I ... you mine.
(A) would lend 
(B) did not lend 
(C) would have lent     
(D) had lent 
(E) would not lend

08. "If I had come earlier, I could have met him.
    This sentence means ....
(A) I came early so that I could meet him.
(B) I came late, so I could not meet him. 
(C) Although I came early, I could not meet him.  
(D) I did not come late; nevertheless, I could not meet him. 
(E) I came early, therefore I could not meet him. 

09. If you do not hurry, the bus ... the stations before you get there. 
(A) has left 
(B) is leaving 
(C) will be leaving     
(D) will leave
(E) will have left

10. If it rains, you must ask the children .... 
(A) won't play football. 
(B) don't play football. 
(C) not to play football. 
(D) play not football. 
(E) not play football.

11. If I had got up early, I should not have come late to school.
    It means .... 
(A) I did not sleep. 
(B) I got up early. 
(C) I came to school on time. 
(D) I did not get up late. 
(E) I got up late.

12. Ani      :  "If I had studied hard, I have    graduated."
    Ana     :  "I think …"
(A) Ani has graduated
(B) Ani did not study hard
(C) Ani and Ana did not study hard
(D) Ana has graduated
(E) Ana did not study hard

13. ….he here now, he would meet me.
(A) were  
(B) is  
(C) was 
(D) had been
(E) if

14. I ... my study if I have good mark in the exams.
(A) continue 
(B) continued 
(C) will continue 
(D) would continue 
(E) would have continued

15. Indah   : "Will  you   go   to   the  football 
            match?" 
    Bunga : "I shall go to the football if it ....”
(A) did not rain heavily.
(B) does not rain heavily.
(C) rained heavily.
(D) raining heavily.
(E) will not rain heavily.                    

16. Mr.Is9ni  ... the new dress if she had enough money. 
(A) buy 
(B) will buy 
(C) bought  
(D) would buy 
(E) will bought

17. If you did your homework, the teacher ... angry with you.
(A) would 
(B) would not be 
(C) will                  
(D) would have been 
(E) will be

18. She ... our club if we ask her.
(A) is going to join 
(B) would join      
(C) will join 
(D) is joining 
(E) would have joined 

19. Unless you returned the book, he…with you. 
(A) shall be angry 
(B) should have been angry  
(C) shall not be angry 
(D) should be angry 
(E) should not be angry

20. Anton would answer the question if he knew  it.
    In fact, he ... the answer. 
(A) doesn't know 
(B) knows 
(C) didn't know            
(D) knew 
(E) has not known

21. "If my father had a car, I would take Andi to Puncak", Didi said. 
From the sentence above we can draw a conclusion that .... 
(A) Didi took Andi to Puncak. 
(B) Didi drives his father's car. 
(C) Didi's father doesn't have a car. 
(D) Didi went to Puncak with Andi. 
(E) Didi and Andi will go to Puncak.

22. If Harry had failed, ... with him?
(A) would his father have been angry 
(B) will his father have been angry 
(C) would his father be angry 
(D) did his father become angry 
(E) was his father angry

23. If I ... my driving test, I shall buy a car. 
(A) buy 
(B) will buy 
(C) bought                     
(D) would buy 
(E) had bought

24. If you took an umbrella, you ... wet.
(A) will get     
(B) would not get 
(C) would get                
(D) will not get 
(E) would have got

25. If I ... , my father would have been angry with me.
(A) fail 
(B) would fail 
(C) failed               
(D) would have failed
(E) had failed







PROBLEM SET 7

01. 
01. I wish the driver wouldn't drive so fast. It makes me nervous.
    This sentence means that ....
(A) the driver drives his car very fast. 
(B) the driver will drive his car slowly. 
(C) the driver doesn't drive his car carefully. 
(D) the driver will not drive his car very fast. 
(E) the driver drove his car very fast.

02. If only I ... more time. I would have come to your house.
(A) had had 
(B) had 
(C) have had 
(D) has 
(E) have

03. The stranger gave me this note and went away before I could say anything. I wish I ... his name.
(A) ask 
(B) had asked 
(C) asked            
(D) would have asked 
(E) asking

04. I wish I ..., so I can teach you now. 
(A) am a teacher of yours 
(B) were a teacher of yours 
(C) had been your teacher 
(D) will be your teacher 
(E) was your teacher   

05. My dear wishes she had attended the party last night.
    It means ....                               
(A) she doesn't want to the party. 
(B) she is in the party now. 
(C) she is not in the party. 
(D) she didn't attend the party. 
(E) she was in the party last night.

06. "If only his son had studied harder."  It means ....
(A) his son did not study harder.
(B) his son had studied harder.
(C) his son has studied harder.
(D) his son not study harder.
(E) his son will not study harder.

07. She went to the blackboard as if she knew the Problem.
    The underlined words mean  ....
(A) She  actually  couldn't  solve  the problem. 
(B) She ought to know how to solve the problem. 
(C) She definitely knew how to solve the problem. 
(D) She should know how to solve the problem. 
(E) She   succeeded   in   solving   the problem.





08. What a pity I can't speak English.
    I wish I ... English.
(A) could speak 
(B) speak
(C) spoke 
(D) could have spoken
(E) had spoken

09. I don’t know Mr. Dhany. I wish I
... him.
(A) knew 
(B) know
(C) have known 
(D) will know
(E) had known

10. It's a pity you didn't roll the carpet up before painting the ceiling. I wish you….
(A) don't  roll  the  carpet  up  beforevpainting the ceiling. 
(B) roll the carpet up before painting the ceiling. 
(C) rolled the carpet up before painting the ceiling. 
(D) had rolled the carpet up before painting the ceiling. 
(E) didn't  roll the  carpet  up before painting the ceiling.

11. If only I had been there, I would have made several criticisms.
    It means ....
(A) I made several criticism.
(B) I had been there for a long time.
(C) I didn't make several criticisms
(D) I would make the criticisms.
(E) I had received the criticisms.

12. If only I had known it was your birthday, I would have bought you a gift. It means
(A) I don't know it is your birthday so I don't buy you a gift. 
(B) I know it is your birthday so I don't buy you a gift. 
(C) I knew it was your birthday so  I bought you a gift. 
(D) I didn't know it was your birthday so I bought you a gift. 
(E) I didn't know it was your birthday so I didn't buy you a gift.


13. I wish you hadn't given him my phone number.
    It means ....
(A) you gave him my phone number. 
(B) you   didn't  give  him   my  phone number. 
(C) you  hadn't  give  him  my phone number. 
(D) you  would   give  him   my  phone number.
(E) you haven't given him my phone number.

14. "He spoke as if he had liked her."
    It means ....
(A) He really liked her.
(B) He appeared to like her.
(C) He wanted people to think he liked her.
(D) he used to like her. 
(E) He had liked her.

15. Anto doesn't have a motor cycle. He wants to have one, but he does not have enough money to buy it.
He may say, "I wish I .... 
(A) have a motor cycle. 
(B) had a motor cycle. 
(C) have had a motor cycle. 
(D) had had a motor cycle. 
(E) will have a motor cycle.

16. What a pity he can't come with us!
I wish he ... come with us.
(A) can 
(B) couldn't
(C) can't 
(D) couldn't have
(E) could

17. Tom talks as though he ...four languages 
(A) has spoken 
(B) could speak 
(C) have spoken 
(D) had spoken 
(E) can have spoken

18. Ida  :   "I told him how to get    
                    there."
       Evi  :   "I know you did, if only he    
                  ... your advise."
(A) take 
(B) had taken 
(C) took                          
(D) as taken 
(E) was taking




19. He had stolen my money, but when I asked him yesterday, he acted as if he ... my money. 
(A) did not steal 
(B) had not stolen      
(C) has not stolen 
(D) would have stolen 
(E) E     had stolen

20. "The stupid boy laughs as if he were successful."
It means that the stupid boy .... 
(A) laughs because he doesn't fail. 
(B) laughs because he succeeds. 
(C) doesn't laugh when he fails. 
(D) doesn't laugh when he succeeds 
(E) laughs, but actually he fails.

21. He treats us as if we ... all foolish. 
(A) were 
(B) had been
(C) have been               
(D) are 
(E) was

22. He was abroad when his father died.
He wished he ….with him.
(A) had been
(B) was not
(C) has not been
(D) has been
(E) would not be

23. He acts as if he…English perfectly
(A) knew
(B) know
(C) known
(D) had known
(E) has known

24. He walked as if he…mad.
(A) were
(B) was
(C) had been
(D) have been
(E) is

25. Andi would rather his father….him money last night.
(A) gave
(B) gives
(C) will give
(D) had given
(E) has given


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3 komentar:

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